شناخت درمانی(cognitive therapy) چیست؟ نظریه آرون بک .متن انگلیسی روان و بسیار عالی در مورد شتاخت درمانی.
تصویر دکتر آرون بک (سمت چپ )و دکترآلبرت الیس دو روانشناس صاحب نظر در شناخت درمانی.
-متن انگلیسی بسیار روان و عالی در زمینه شناخت درمانی(نوعی از روش رواندرمانی).
Over 2000 years ago the Greek Stoic philosopher Epictetus said that people are disturbed not by things but by the views they take of them.
It is the interpretation we place on events, rather than events themselves, that determine our emotions. For example: if you were lying in your bed at night and were woken by a window blowing open in the next room, the way you thought about the event would affect how you felt about the situation. If you thought the window had blown open accidentally, you might feel angry or annoyed. However, if you thought that someone was trying to break in, you would be more likely to feel anxious. Therefore, our feelings are not just automatic reactions to events, they are created by the thoughts that we have.
Just as individuals construct irrational thoughts that maintain their negative emotions and maladaptive behaviour, they can reconstruct their thoughts and view situations differently, which will result in positive feelings and adaptive behaviour.
What Is Cognitive Therapy?
تعریف شناخت درمانی
Cognitive Therapy is a way of talking about the connections between how we think, how we feel and how we behave. It particularly concentrates on ideas that are unrealistic. These often undermine our self-confidence and make us feel depressed or anxious. Looking at these can help us work out different ways of thinking and behaving, that in turn will help us cope better. The basic premise of cognitive therapy therefore, is that the way we think about events in our lives (cognitions) determines how we feel about them (emotions).
تعریف طرحواره یا اسکیما(الگوهای فکری یا قالبهای فکری با ثبات و ناخودآگاه).
Cognitive Therapy also helps people to look at their "rules for living” called schemas. Schemas are cognitive structures or templates that organise how we think, feel, act, relate, and understand and are typically referred to as our personality style. Schemas are outside of conscious awareness and determine how we interpret the world and respond to situations. Whilst cognitive structures can be adaptive, allowing us to process information rapidly, the same rapid processing can result in entrenched maladaptive structures. This is because they are strong beliefs and assumptions about how we should live our lives, which we develop whilst we are growing up.
How does psychological and emotional distress occur?
Psychological and emotional distress occurs when people perceive the world as threatening. When this happens perceptions and interpretations of events become highly selective, egocentric, and rigid, resulting in people making systematic errors in reasoning, called 'cognitive distortions'.
Cognitive Distortions include:
تحریفهای شناختی(خطاهای شناختی)
1-تفکر همه یا هیچ.
All-or-nothing thinking: Seeing things in black-or-white categories that exist on continuum.
Mental Filter: Dwelling on a single negative detail, instead of seeing the whole picture.
3-تعمیم بیش از حد.
Over-generalisation: Seeing one negative event as a never-ending pattern of 'always', or 'never'.
4-نتیجه گیری شتاب زده
Jumping to conclusions: Interpreting things negatively when there is no evidence to support it.
Mind reading: Guessing the content of someone else's thoughts, without checking it out.
6-پیش گویی منفی
Fortune-telling: Predicting the future in a negative way, without any supporting evidence.
7-نادیده گرفتن جنبه های مثبت خود و دیگران
Discounting the positive: Positive experiences are dismissed, as 'not counting'.
Magnification: Magnifying ones problems and shortcomings, or minimising one's positive qualities.
Imperative statements: Rigid, absolute demands about oneself, others or the world taking the form of should, must, ought, have to, or awfulising, catastrophising, leading to "' I can't stand it".
Emotional reasoning: Assuming negative emotional thinking reflects reality. i.e. '"I feel it".
Labelling: Attaching a negative label to an action i.e. I'm a failure, instead of, I made a mistake.
Personalisation: Holding oneself responsible for an event outside one's control.
13-تونل ویژن(نگاه صرفا منفی به همه چیز)
Tunnel vision: Seeing only the negative aspects of a situation.
Research has shown that specific patterns of thinking are associated with a wide range of emotional and psychological problems. These negative or extreme thought patterns have frequently become so habitual that they are experienced as automatic and go unnoticed by the individual.
Cognitive Therapy treats emotional problems by changing or restructuring maladaptive patterns of thought. Clients are taught how to uncover and re-examine these negative beliefs, and replace them with more adaptive ways of viewing life events. Through this process, clients learn self-help techniques that can produce rapid symptom shifts, solve current life problems, and improve self-esteem. This negative pattern of thought called negative automatic thoughts, can be seen as abbreviations of deeper cognitive structures called schemas.